Mobile telephony, also called cellular telephony, basically consists of two large parts: a communications network (or mobile phone network) and terminals (or mobile phones) that allow access to that network.
The mobile phone is an electronic wireless device that allows access to the cellular or mobile telephone network. It is called cellular in most Latin American countries because the service operates through a network of cells, where each signal repeater antenna is a cell, although there are also mobile satellite phone networks. Its main feature is its portability, which allows to communicate from almost any place. The main function is voice communication, such as the conventional phone.
As of the 21st century, mobile phones have acquired functionalities that go far beyond just to call or send text messages, you could say that they have been unified (not replaced) with different devices such as PDA, photo camera, electronic calendar, alarm clock, calculator, microprojector, GPS or multimedia player, as well as being able to perform a multitude of actions on a small and portable device that carries practically the whole world of developed countries. This type of mobile phone evolution is known as a smartphone.
The first precedent regarding the mobile phone is the Motorola company, with its model DynaTAC 8000. The model was designed by Motorola engineer Rudy Krolopp in 1983. The model weighed a little less than a kilo and had a value of almost $4000 US dollars. Krolopp would later join the Motorola Research and development team led by Martin Cooper. Both Cooper and Krolopp appear as owners of the original patent. From the DynaTAC 8000, Motorola would develop new models like the Motorola MicroTAC, released in 1989, and the Motorola StarTAC, released on 1996 to the market.
At present they have great importance the tactile mobile phones, which follow the wake of the IPhone.
Telephone communication is possible thanks to the interconnection between mobile and public power stations.
Depending on the bands or frequencies in which the mobile operates, it can operate in one part or another of the world.
Mobile telephony consists of the combination of a network of radio transceiver stations (repeaters, base stations or BTS) and a series of telephone exchanges of 1st and 5th level (MSC and BSC respectively), which makes possible the communication between portable telephone terminals (mobile phones) or between portable terminals and telephones of the traditional fixed network.
In its operation the mobile phone establishes communication with a base station, and as it moves, the computer systems that administer the network are changing the call to the next base station, in a transparent way for the user. That is why it is said that the base stations form a network of cells, which honeycomb, serving each base station to the mobile devices that are in their cell.
Evolution and technological conversion.
The evolution of the mobile phone has allowed to decrease its size and weight, from the Motorola DynaTAC, the first mobile phone in 1983 that weighed 800 grams, to the current more compact and with greater service performance. The development of smaller and longer-lasting batteries, sharper and more colorful screens, the incorporation of more user-friendly software, make the mobile phone a highly valued element in modern life.
The advancement of technology has made these devices incorporate functions that not so long ago seemed futuristic, such as games, MP3 music playback and other formats, email, SMS, PDA, digital photography and digital video, videocalling, Internet Browsing, GPS, and even digital television. Mobile phone companies are already thinking about new applications for this small device that accompanies us everywhere. Some of these ideas are: means of payment, locator and identifier of people.
With the advent of digital mobile telephony, it was possible to access Web pages specially designed for mobiles, known as WAP technology.
The first connections were made using a telephone call to a number of the operator through which the data was transmitted in a way similar to how a PC modem would.
Subsequently, the GPRS was born, which allowed access to the Internet through TCP/IP protocol. Through the appropriate software it is possible to access, from a mobile terminal, services such as FTP, Telnet, instant Messaging, e-mail, using the same protocols as a conventional computer. The speed of GPRS is 54 kbit/s in optimal conditions, and is priced according to the amount of information transmitted and received.
Other newer technologies that allow Internet access are EDGE, EvDO, HSPA and WiMAX.
On the other hand, it is increasingly offering tablets (iPad type, Samsung Galaxy Tab, ebook or similar) by operators to connect to the Internet and make GSM calls (3 G tablets).
Leveraging UMTS technology, PC modems that connect to the Internet are starting to appear using the mobile phone network, achieving speeds similar to those of the ADSL. This system is still expensive because the pricing system is not a true flat rate but some operators establish limitations in terms of data or speed (with the notable exception of Vodafone). On the other hand, these phones can be connected to WiFi 3 G bases (also called 3 G gateways) to provide Internet access to a home wireless network.
In 2011, 20% of broadband users intend to change their fixed connection to a mobile Internet connection.
Electromagnetic pollution, also known as electropollution, is the pollution caused by the radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum generated by electronic equipment or other elements of human activity.
Numerous agencies such as the World Health Organization, the European Commission, the Complutense University of Madrid, the Spanish Association Against Cancer, the Ministry of Health and consumption of Spain, or the Higher Council of Scientific Research of Españahan issued reports that discard damage to health due to emissions of electromagnetic radiation, including those of mobile phones.
However there are studies that indicate otherwise as the one published in 2003 by the TNO (Dutch Institute of Technological Research), which stated that the radiations of UMTS technology could be dangerous, (although another investigation of the University of Zurich, which used up to 10 times the intensity used by the study of the TNO, threw contrary results). There are also numerous studies investigating the possible association between the presence of cell phone antennas and various diseases.